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Esquisse d’une typologie des documents numériques
+ Accueil du site > II. Le blog

Esquisse d’une typologie des documents numériques

Mis en ligne le 21/05/2007

Tout utilisateur doit avoir une représentation mentale organisée des objets numériques qu’il manipule afin d’orienter sa prise de décision :
- Quel est cet objet ? son format ? son poids ?
- Ai-je le droit de l’utiliser ?
- Ai-je la possibilité de le modifier ? Si oui, avec quel logiciel l’éditer ?
- Comment en garder la trace, l’archiver ?
- ....

Par analogie avec la phylogénie du vivant, on peut esquisser un classement critérié des documents numériques usuels.

Quelques critères de classement

Liste non exhaustive, à compléter...

Le type d’objet : document, exécutable (programme) , dossier, lien...

Objet ou lien virtuel :
- les objets proprement dits,
- les liens vers l’objet objet cible : raccourcis, marque-pages.

La localisation de l’objet :
- Les objets locaux : stockés sur l’ordinateur,
- les objets en ligne : accessibles avec une connexion internet,

La « manipulabilité » de l’objet :
- les objets manipulables, techniquement éditables, modifiables : document OpenOffice, etc.
- les objets techniquement non manipulables, non modifiables simplement : streaming, applications embarquées, API, site web, fichier pdf, animation swf...

Le contenu du document :
- Les documents simples : texte, tableau de données, image, vidéo,
- Les documents composites : texte illustré, journal, diaporama, page web, application multimédia, « hypermédia »...

Le type de licence d’utilisation de l’objet  :
- les objets à contenu libre de droit / propriétaire,
- le format du fichier peut être ouvert (la spécification est publiquement accessible) ou fermé (la spécification est jalousement gardée secrète)
- les documents créés avec des logiciels libres / propriétaires.

Les propriétés de l’objet : nom, format (extension), taille, date de création, date de modification, mots clés (tags)...

Une proposition de classification

Quelques liens

- http://www.file-extensions.org/
- Format de données

Version à imprimer

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