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Bits, bytes, octets & cie : le B.A.BA à connaître
+ Accueil du site > I. Fiches pratiques > 1.1. L’environnement de travail

Bits, bytes, octets & cie : le B.A.BA à connaître

Mis en ligne le 23/10/2006

Simples utilisateurs, nous sommes malgré nous confrontés à des termes techniques, des unités barbares.

Essayons de nous y retrouver un peu... Ne serait-ce que pour comprendre le langage des techniciens qui veulent nous expliquer pourquoi nous ne pouvons pas copier les photos du voyage (200Mo) sur une disquette (1,44Mo).

Le système binaire
- 1 bit : la célèbre valeur binaire qui vaut 0 ou 1 (« les lettres de l’alphabet informatique »),
- 1 octet (byte en anglais) : chaîne de 8 bits (« un mot de 8 lettres ») : 01001001,
- un octet peut donc prendre 2^{8} valeurs, de 0(00000000) à 255(11111111).

Les unités et puissances
- 1 KiloOctet (Ko) = 1024 Octets
- 1 MégaOctet (Mo) = 1024 Ko = 1 048 576 octets
- 1 GigaOctet (Go) = 1024 Mo = 1 073 741 824 Octets
- 1 TeraOctet (To) = 1024 Go = 1 099 511 627 776 octets

MAJ 12 Oct 2009 : Oups, on ne nous aurait pas tout dit ?
http://www.presence-pc.com/actualit...

Encore des chiffres...
- 2^{8}=256 On le rencontre notamment en image numérique pour coder les couleurs,
- 2^{24}=2^{8\times3}=2^8\times2^8\times2^8=16 777 216 : c’est le nombre de couleurs distinctes que peut théoriquement afficher l’écran de l’ordinateur.

Connaître son matériel Tout possesseur d’un ordinateur devrait connaître quelques données caractéristiques de son matériel :
- L’unité centrale :

  • Le Processeur : sa vitesse conditionne la rapidité de calcul (l’unité est une fréquence en MHz, GHz...)
  • La mémoire RAM : cette capacité correspond aux possibilités de traitement simultané des données en Mo, Go (extensible)... Toujours l’augmenter à l’achat,
  • Nombre et taille des disques durs : de 20 à 1000 Go !

- Les périphériques :

  • L’écran :
    • Technologie : classique (CTR), écran plat (défini par sa taille (diagonale en pouces) et sa définition (NxM pixels affichés),
    • On recherche souvent la plus grande. Attention ! Les écrans plats et portables ne permettent pas de la modifier sans dégradation de la qualité d’affichage !
  • Le scanner : résolution optique en ppp (pixels par pouce) ou improprement dpi (dots per inch),
  • L’imprimante : la qualité représentée par la densité et la taille des gouttes d’encre exprimées en dpi (dots per inch) (mais rien à voir avec celle du scanner) et picolitre,
  • L’appareil photo numérique : taille du capteur (en MégaPixels) et capacité de la carte mémoire (en Mo, Go),
  • Les unités mobiles de stockage (de plus en plus indispensables) :
    • Clés USB et autres lecteurs MP3/MP4 : capacités en Mo ou Go
    • Disques durs externes : capacités en Go ou To ( !)

Effectivement, nous devons toujours mettre en regard la taille des objets que nous manipulons (fichiers texte, images, diaporama, vidéo) et la capacité de stockage des supports.

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