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Un peu de théorie des images numériques
+ Accueil du site > I. Fiches pratiques > 1.3. Produire / Créer / Publier > 1.3.1. Documents > Images

Un peu de théorie des images numériques

Images bitmap et images vectorielles
Mis en ligne le 6/02/2007

Quelques informations à connaître :

Les types d’images

Il existe DEUX grandes familles d’images numériques :

les images BITMAP

Ce sont celles que nous utilisons le plus souvent :
- dessins réalisés dans PAINT au pinceau et au pot de peinture :-(
- images glanées sur le web (dans Google Image par exemple),
- images produites par les Appareil Photos Numériques (APN)
- images scannées

Propriétés :
- Ce sont des grilles de points, les pixels.
- Les images bimaps ont une taille définie : M pixels x N pixels
- La qualité d’impression dépend de la résolution demandée à l’imprimante
- On ne peut pas redimensionner une image bitmap sans perte d’information.

Quelques formats de fichiers-image Bitmaps :
- non ou peu compressés : BMP, TIFF
- compressés : GIF, JPG ou JPEG, PNG (libre)

Quelques logiciels pour manipuler les images Bitmaps :
- ADOBE Photoshop
- COREL PaintShopPro
- THE GIMP (LIBRE mais ardu... pour débuter)
- Irfanview
- Photofiltre
- PAINT

les images VECTORIELLES

On utiliser des objets vectoriels sans le savoir quand on utilise les outils de la barre DESSIN de MS Word ou MS PowerPoint.

Les logos sont généralement réalisé sous forme vectorielles.

Propriétés :
- Elles n’ont pas de taille définie : elles seront toujours nettes à l’impression
- les objets sont définis par des courbes mathématiques, les courbes de bézier
- les objets sont éditables, cad modifiables : points, tangentes, couleur de fond, couleur de contour, style de contour, transparence...

Quelques formats de fichiers-image vectoriels : AI, SVG (libre)

Quelques logiciels pour manipuler les images vectoriels :
- ADOBE Illustrator
- Les logiciels des suites Office et OpenOffice.org
- INKSCAPE (libre)

Du vectoriel au bitmap

On peut facilement exporter une image vectorielle en image bitmap :
- fonction Exporter des logiciels vectoriels
- Un simple Impr.Écran peut faire l’affaire

Du bitmap au vectoriel

Le passage du bitmap au vectoriel est possible dans certains cas faciles (applats de couleurs) grâce à des algorithmes de VECTORISATION (voir le logiciel INKSCAPE)

Utilisation des fichiers-images

Dans un document PAO (prospectus, affiche, flyer...), on mélange souvent objets bitmaps (fonds) et objets vectoriels (cadres de texte, formes...).

Version à imprimer

FORUM


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